With the extent of shallow exploitation of mineral resources increase, especially metal mines in China are moving towards a mine deep mining stage. However, deep mining faces many environmental and technical challenges. For domestic mines that are in the transition from automation to intelligence, green mining and deep mining are the topics that must be considered in their future development. New ideas, new models and new technological innovations, including green development and intelligent mining, have become the key to deep, safe, efficient and environmentally friendly mining. As the direction of the future development of the mining industry, how does intelligent mining guarantee deep mining, what kind of â€œwaywayâ€ will be developed in deep mining?
Deep mining is not only the inevitable development of mining industry, but also the frontier of exploring deep mysteries and developing deep deposits.
After more than 60 years of exploration and mining since the founding of New China, China's shallow mineral resources have been reduced year by year, and metal mineral resources with a depth of less than 1,000 meters are gradually being exhausted.
The exploitation of mineral resources, especially metal mineral resources, is advancing in full depth. Some metal mines will gradually develop from deep within 1,000 meters to deep wells of 1500 meters and above. Statistics show that before 2000, only two metal mines in China reached a depth of 1,000 meters. Since the beginning of the 21st century, its development has been very fast. At present, 16 underground metal mines have reached or exceeded 1000 meters. Among them, Jilin Jiapigou gold, lead-zinc mine in Yunnan Huize and six Ju copper mine, Henan Lingbao Gold Xin kettle are more than 1500 meters.
In addition, the National prospecting breakthrough strategic action by Helping exploration area, mining the deep and side prospecting, found a number of deep deposits, such as iron ore mountain thinking, Jining iron ore, iron ore large ditch, Chen ditch iron ore , Ruihai Gold Mine, Sanshan Island Gold Mine Xiling Mining Area, etc.
Some experts predict that there will be nearly 30 metal mines in China that will be mined below 1000 meters underground. Nearly 10 mines will enter the depth of 1300~2000 meters. In the next 5-10 years, there will be more than one third of mines. Enter a depth of 1000 meters deep.
However, deep mining, as a frontier of mining development, also faces many challenges.
The geomechanical characteristics of deep rock mass determine that the obvious difference between deep mining and shallow mining lies in the special environment in which deep rocks are located, that is, the complex mechanical environment of â€œthree highs and one disturbanceâ€, which makes many key problems need to be solved.
One is the deep high stress problem. Deep high stresses can lead to destructive ground pressure activities, including rockbursts, landslides, roof collapses, water inrush, and other dynamic disasters caused by mining excavation. The second is the problem of deterioration of lithology. The shallow hard rock turns into soft rock in the deep, and the elastic body becomes the latent plastic body, which imposes a great burden on the support and mining safety, which seriously affects the mining efficiency and efficiency. The third is the high temperature environment in deep wells. The rock formation temperature increases with a gradient of 1.7 Â° C / 100 m ~ 3.0 Â° C / 100 m deep. The high temperature environmental conditions of deep wells seriously affect the labor productivity of workers, and in order to effectively cool down, the mining costs will be greatly increased. With the increase of mining depth, the lifting height of ore and various materials is significantly increased, the difficulty of upgrading and the cost of raising are greatly increased, and the production safety is a threat.
At the same time, the major problems of well construction, mining technology, lifting transportation, ventilation cooling, filling, rock movement prediction, etc. involving safety production in ultra-large-scale ultra-deep well mining are inseparable from the deep well lifting wire rope testing device and the tail of large processing capacity. Research and application of key equipment such as mine concentrated storage devices and ultra-large-scale metal mine transportation intelligent control systems; relevant technical standards for deep metal mining are also to be established and improved.
These key problems in deep mining are also the core issues that need to be faced and addressed in smart mining in the future.
In addition, the pressures and challenges faced by China's mines from the mining market, transformation and development, and national security and environmental protection policies have also prompted them to improve their production efficiency and resource utilization rate by promoting mechanization, automation and intelligence. In the process of building a safe and safe haven for the underground mines, the â€œsix systemsâ€ and the â€œtailline mine safety online monitoring systemâ€, the modernization level of the entire mine will be improved.
In response to the new situation and new challenges faced by mining, experts in the industry have proposed a solution â€“ intelligent mines. This is also the poetry and distance of the future development of the mine.
Professor Zhang Yuansheng of Beijing Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy believes that â€œsmart mineâ€ is an organic combination and new development stage of â€œindustrializationâ€ and â€œinformatizationâ€. It is the essence of â€œInternet + mineâ€ and its ultimate goal is to achieve â€œnobodyâ€. mining". "Smart Mine" uses artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, cloud computing, big data, geographic information technology (RSGISGNSS), virtual reality (VR), intelligent robots, rail transit technology, wireless communication technology, automatic control, computer software, mobile internet High-tech equipment manufacturing and other high-tech applications are applied to all operations of mine production to realize the digitization and intelligence of the whole process and the whole life cycle of the mine.
The so-called intelligent mining is a mining project with the goal of safety, high efficiency, economy and environmental protection in the mining of mineral deposits, digitalization of mining environment, intelligent mining equipment, remote control of production process, network of information transmission and informationization of operation and management. .
From the perspective of operation mode, "smart mine" should be remote, remote control, unmanned production management, intelligent mining operations, automation of the smelting process, and seamless transportation scheduling.
At present, the development of China's intelligent mine technology is mainly reflected in the integrated dispatching center, resource management system, intelligent equipment, ubiquitous information intelligent acquisition and transmission, intelligent mining blasting technology and equipment, high-precision positioning and navigation of underground space, intelligent production scheduling and control. Platform, mine safety intelligent monitoring and early warning system.
Among them, in terms of intelligent equipment, intelligent scraper, charge truck, rock drilling and other equipment have been put into use; in terms of intelligent communication, the underground wireless communication system has been applied in more than 10 mines such as Jiama Copper Mine; In the intelligent mining blasting technology and equipment, the 3D laser scanning system has been applied in mines such as Ashele copper mine in Hubei and Daye in Hubei, supporting intelligent mining blasting design, and guiding the results of automatic drilling and optimizing charging. In the high-precision positioning and navigation of underground space, a prototype system has been developed, and some technologies have already realized on-site conversion applications.
Large-scale deep well filling mining is a prominent feature of metal mines in China in recent years. Deep burial (high ground stress, high ground temperature), thick ore body, environmental protection requirements have brought many technical challenges to mining, which is reflected in the choice of mining methods. , mining order, lifting transportation, ventilation and cooling, filling system, tailings treatment, safety (including waterproof).
Ruihai Gold Mine is a typical mine for large-scale deep well deposit filling. According to the design plan, mining automation and information fusion control are also included. Ruihai Gold Mine Automation and Information System includes: mining automation, mineral processing automation, production management information platform, and enterprise network system planning. Among them, mining automation includes mining automation system, communication and network system, safety monitoring and monitoring system, underground traffic automation system; mineral processing automation including hard rock crushing, grinding system, flotation system, dehydration system; enterprise management information platform mainly refers to mine Production management information system; enterprise network system planning includes underground optical ring network system and surface optical ring network system.
Specifically, the mining automation system in its design is subdivided into a lifting automation system, a tape transportation control system, a slip well, a crushing system, a filling preparation automation, a ventilation control system, etc.; the communication and network system is subdivided into a downhole optical ring network system. , underground wired communication system, wireless communication system in pit, etc.; safety monitoring and monitoring system is subdivided into gas monitoring system, ground pressure (microseismic) timely monitoring system, personnel positioning system, vehicle positioning system, etc.; underground traffic automation system is subdivided into slopes Road traffic signal system, unmanned motor vehicle control system, etc.
With the completion and commissioning of some large underground mines, it is foreseeable that remote remote control and automated mining will be a distinctive feature in the future, and the modernization level of new mines will be greatly improved.
The mine has intelligent poetry and distance, and of course there are realities in front of it. It should be noted that the current mechanization degree of China's metal mines is still relatively backward, and it is still necessary to accelerate the integration process of industrialization and informationization, realize the leap of traditional mining, and move towards intelligent mining.
Speaking of the current automation and informationization of mines, China Enfei Engineering Technology Co., Ltd. Bai Guanghui believes that mining enterprises should choose advanced and promising technologies according to their own needs.
He said that the domestic underground mine traditional automation system can subdivide more than a dozen systems, such as high-voltage power supply system, low-voltage power supply system, drainage system, ventilation system, crushing system, scraper remote control system, unmanned truck transportation system, Rail motor vehicle transportation system, chute material level detection system, mud discharge system, lifting system and six systems. It should be said that domestic mines attach great importance to advanced technology, and at the same time invest a lot of money and manpower to automate and informatize construction, but the overall effect is not satisfactory.
With the wide application of network technology and TCP/IP communication protocol, in his view, underground mine automation and information integration are feasible. But he believes that integration is not integration, integration is not integration. Integration is based on the integration, to achieve the intersection of each professional system (power supply and distribution, control, network), mutual penetration, information mutual reference, resource sharing level, so that no more comprehensive The traces are higher than the seamless connection between the systems. This integration should start from the implementation of the mine's overall integration to the implementation standards of each subsystem, and finally to the integration of all systems into the underground public network to build a control platform. This level of integration requires a combination of comprehensive professional skills and overall control.
For the integration of the entry point, Bai Guanghui believes that the integration should start from the bottom: from high and low voltage power supply and distribution, automation of each subsystem, and the external communication protocol of each subsystem. Wind, water and electricity are the lifeblood of a mine, and the power distribution system is the source of power for wind and water. Therefore, seizing electricity (including control) is equivalent to grasping the driving force of a company. Therefore, the first entry point for convergence is "electricity." Informatization is the foundation of modern mine construction, and the network is a highway that realizes informationization of all mines. Grasping the network is tantamount to grabbing the entire nervous system of the mine â€“ making everything possible. Therefore, the second entry point for convergence is "network."
At present, the practice of most mines is to first subdivide the various subsystems that need to be built according to the process system and according to the profession, and subcontract the subsystems to different professional integration companies. On this basis, a large network (integrated information network) is used to cover all subsystems. This large network is generally integrated by the owner.
Due to the inherent characteristics between the various subsystems, the coordination is poor. This kind of decentralized implementation and unified coordination means that at most, an integrated system can be obtained. The system has many characteristics such as N communication protocols, N multiple control devices, and N integration habits. At the same time, it is naturally separated from the system, making it difficult or impossible for users to implement even the idea of â€‹â€‹integrated maintenance. This integrated approach of zero integration will inevitably lead to a lack of integrity in mine construction, and the integration between the various systems will be even more difficult.
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